Author Archives: John Hilton III

Guest Post: How to Pass the AP Chinese Exam – Secrets from a Teacher with a Perfect Pass Rate

Special note – this is a guest post from Mandarin Companion. We are grateful to hear that the state of Utah is studying the use of graded readers as this seems to be a “no-brainer” approach to improving Chinese literacy for dual-language immersion students.

My students call me 柏老师, however you can call me Grant Brown. I am a Chinese language high school teacher from Iowa. Over a period of a couple of years, I was able to take my students studying Chinese from a 50% pass rate to a 100% pass rate on the AP Chinese exam. This is what I did.

The Story

I have been teaching Chinese in high school for several years. When I was in college, I started studying Chinese and gained such a love for the language that I went on to obtain a masters degree in Chinese and lived in Guangzhou, China, for a number of years. There are not many of us Americans who teach Chinese, however I think we are able to bring a unique perspective to the classroom.

When I first started teaching Chinese, we mostly followed the textbook. I thought I was doing a good job in covering the content of the textbook, but the only the students who had grown up in Chinese speaking households were the ones passing the test. We steadily worked through the Chinese textbooks and progressed towards more advanced material, yet my student’s ability to understand and produce Chinese in terms of speaking and writing was quite weak.

Every day we would cover new grammar patterns, add new characters, and continue onto the next lesson in the textbook. The students would take the test, they would do all right, and then we’d move onto the next chapter but would seemingly forget everything they learned. It was really unsatisfying for the student and for me as a teacher. They knew they were not getting better at Chinese, I knew they were not getting better at Chinese, but nobody knew what to do and we were sort of stuck in this cycle. I found that it is totally possible as a Chinese student to have a core set of vocabulary and grammar and yet be unable to use the language.

I began asking myself “What do I do? Do the last few assessments count for anything? Do I go back to the beginning? Do I admit defeat?”

Taking the AP Chinese Exam

I learned in graduate school that, in theory, reading speed and task analysis are some of the biggest indicators of success on exams; Can the student read quickly enough within the time frame and not get tired? Can the student understand what they are supposed to do? Later on, I had the opportunity to be a reader for the AP Chinese exam, and that experience confirmed those theories.

The AP Chinese exam takes 2 hours and 15 minutes to complete and is comprised of two sections. One half contains 70 multiple choice questions, half based on reading prompts and half based on listening prompts. The other half, students are required to complete two writing tasks and listen and respond orally to prompts. Additionally, the student is expected to have some knowledge of Chinese culture and customs to be reflected in the writing and responses. The AP Chinese exam is a strong gauge of a students ability to grasp and understand Chinese.

People who study foreign language assessment understand that reading slowly is an enormous source of error for scoring well on tests. The slower the person reads, the more difficult it is for them to remember all of the things that are involved in a particular text. They’re not able to process the text as deeply. They’re not able to employ their full set of cognitive resources. Reading speed is just like the bandwidth on your internet connection. If you limit that bandwidth, you can either understand what is going on, remember what is going on, or think about what is going on, but you can’t do all three. And if you are reading too slow, you likely can only do one of the three which is going to be a basic understanding. Reading speed and reading comprehension go hand in hand.

This underscores one of the greatest problems of traditional language education, especially for Chinese. Everyone knows that Chinese is slower to learn than other languages, but frequently fail to stop to think about what does it mean for the pace of language learning to be slower. Typically, students are introduced to a wave of new words and characters which they may not see again for months or even years. Textbooks are excellent at introducing material but do a poor job of recycling material just learned. They are also poor at creating opportunities to use basic and intermediate words all together. Because of this, learners often have the experience of working through a textbook chapter learning things they need to say, discarding them, and then moving onto the next chapter. This is often why a student may be able to study up to an intermediate level of Chinese but lack an intermediate level of proficiency.

The Day Everything Changed

Everything changed the day I brought graded readers into the classroom. When I was studying for my masters degree in Chinese, one of my professors was a big advocate of extensive reading. Having easy-to-read books is so important because after the initial excitement of learning has passed, students get to a point where they say “now I want to use my language” and they just can’t. Graded readers are one of those very few things that learners are able to use with relative ease and have such a profound impact on their ability to use Chinese.

At the beginning, we read one book all together as a class. We went through it slowly and deliberately with a guided reading approach. I was able to help when we came across characters that students had forgotten or didn’t know. As we read together, I would find out what was understood and then break it down in a structured way.

After the process of having read one book in this way, students were then able to choose their own book and read it in pairs or groups. Because they had already read one book, students developed confidence to read on their own. We would read for the first 15 mins of class three to four days per week and then move onto the lesson for that day.

Some students struggled and felt they were never going to get through a book, but with some help and encouragement, they continued to read. After a while, they were able to take a look back and realize just how much they had actually read. Once when I had a student go back to the book he had first started reading, in his excitement he blurted out “Man, this is so easy!” Yeah it was easy, because now you’ve learned how to do this! They didn’t just struggle through a few sample sentences or short paragraphs, they had been practicing all of the vocabulary and grammar in new and novel forms in a variety of different contexts, a way that mirrors the way we actually encounter language in the real world. And now that they had this practice, they were able to comprehend and use Chinese in a way they hadn’t been able to do before.

Once students had read a second book, the experience became easier and much more enjoyable for everyone involved. I would assign books as homework but we would still occasionally have reading time in class. Those students who read through all of the graded readers up to level 2 were able to jump off to reading comic books or whatever else they were interested in. Some of this was slow, but because they found it interesting and had a solid grasp of Chinese, they found it worthwhile and it gave them opportunities to develop their language skills further even if it required extra work.

Why Graded Readers Work

Prior to using graded readers in the classroom, it’s not as if I wasn’t teaching reading, I was! We had the students reading things in the textbook and I created plenty of additional readings. We had the students using all of the supplemental materials, but it just wasn’t enough.

Specifically, the Mandarin Companion graded readers provide a chance for students to see words and characters they’ve learned over and over again. This is so important especially with certain challenging elements of Chinese like the verb 着 (zhe) structures. I can’t tell you how much time I must have spent, year after year, trying to teach students how to use 着. I have created charts, explained it with charts, sample sentences, and prompts and then have the students try to use it. They would have a loose understanding of what it meant but no one was ever able to use it correctly. Then maybe two weeks later we would see it in a sample reading from the textbook and they would ask about this weird grammar structure using the character 着. I would be like, yeah, that’s 着, the character we went over with all those charts and graphs.

However, when we started reading in the Mandarin Companion stories, they would start seeing 着 over and over again along with all of these different grammar structures, but this time it was being used in meaningful ways that impacted their understanding of the story. When they were able to finally experience it used in this way, this and other grammar forms became comprehensible to them. Not only did they remember 着, but they also began to use it in their own writing!

Character recognition is the tail that wags the dog for all Chinese education. As I’ve attended countless workshops and presentations at Chinese conferences around the world, educators are constantly trying to find ways to teach characters in a way that doesn’t take up so much time, isn’t boring, and doesn’t make students feel unhappy. While the jury is out on exactly what is the best way to do this, what I do know is once a student understands enough Chinese to start reading extensively, learning new characters just becomes easy and learners have a great time doing it. There is still a little bit of explicit character study, but for the most part, they get on this implicit learning train that is just constantly picking up new things all the time. The sooner we can get students onto that train, the fewer students will be lost in the grind of character memorization.

Building Reading Stamina for Test Taking

If you can imagine for a moment sitting down for two hours to take AP Chinese exam and lets suppose you have a good knowledge of all of the material, but you’ve only ever sat down to study in 20 min chunks where you move from one activity to the next and you’ve never sat down and done a straight 1 or 2 hours of a single activity in Chinese before. This illustrates the contrast of the classroom vs test taking experience. You’d imagine that 1) you’re going to be exhausted by the time you get to the end of the lengthy exam, and 2) the harder you struggle to keep pace at the beginning of the exam the harder it will be to perform well throughout the entire test. Reading stamina in a foreign language is a very real skill.

To help students build reading stamina, we created tracking sheets that tracked reading in terms of pages per 15 mins and how long they are able to sit down and read in Chinese before they felt fatigued. I wanted to help them build their capacity to read longer periods of time without feeling exhausted. Slowly over the course of time, the amount of time they spent being able to read on their own without stopping, consistently increased. For students who really bought into the process, sitting down and reading for 30-45 mins became very approachable.

In Class Activities

Building the class around extensive reading is an amazing opportunity for students to have this huge amount of comprehensible input while at the same time getting high quality practice in Chinese. When you have this going on, you can take a step back and add some listening, speaking, and writing activities. When the students get invested in a story, the opportunities are endless. Here are some of the things we did in class.

  • Stage a debate about what the main character should have done differently.
  • Some students produced their own podcast for the class where they discussed a book.
  • Produced a radio play using a scene from a story with students playing different characters.
  • Two students wrote an entire story about Xiao Hei 小黑, the dog from the story The Sixty Year Dream, complete with illustrations.
  • In a more memorable experience, the class staged a press conference with the main character from The Country of the Blind after he escaped the country. With one student playing the main character, the others acted like news reporters and interviewed him about his experience.

With activities like these, students are not worrying so much about what to say, they know what to say, they’re just thinking about how to say it. It provides an environment with endless possibilities that pushes the limit on what they are able to do with the language.

Cultural Elements in Graded Readers

I remember one time when talking to a fellow Chinese teacher who said “These books are interesting, but I really want my students to read things that have a lot of Chinese cultural information in it.” What she didn’t realize is that all of the book in Mandarin Companion are set in China during various time periods that are totally filled with opportunities to hook students on different elements of Chinese culture. I was able to give students reading and writing projects based on the stories that extended their interests into other domains. For instance, after reading The Monkeys Paw they may become interested in finding more about the period of the opening up of China in the 80’s (开展开发), or after reading The Sixty Year Dream they become interested in the fall of the Qing dynasty, or even during reading Great Expectations they’re more interested in finding out about Yunan. All the stories provide hooks for the students to become interested in more real-world things on their own without the help of a teacher.

Having books like these are so much more interesting to students because it gives a teacher like me incredible latitude to ask things like “Would you like to know more about this?” When you have the learners buy in, all of a sudden you have students who are really willing to put that extra effort into finding out more about the world around them. They spur interest in Chinese culture and customs. It creates opportunities for students to deepen their interest and enjoyment in a Chinese learning experience, leading them to attempt more challenging tasks with greater interest, tasks that lead to bigger and better outcomes. I believe finding the right reading material for students is the fundamental challenge of a Chinese teacher.

100% Pass Rate

As a class, we achieved a 100% pass rate on the AP Chinese exam with an average score of 4. Every single student was doing extensive reading. The students who really bought into extensive reading had strong results with scores of 4 and 5. And just to be clear, every student in my Chinese class took the exam, so it wasn’t just 100% of the test takers, it was all of the kids in the class who passed. As a teacher, this was the best gift I could have ever hoped for, to see my students succeed.

But there is life after the AP Chinese exam. From this class of students, 50% went on to study Chinese at university. Typically students attending university who had previously studied in high school will place into a Chinese 100 level class with some testing into Chinese 200. For my students, most placed into Chinese 200 level classes with some even placing into Chinese 300. Extensive reading simply generates superior results.

A NOTE FOR TEACHERS

The big challenge for all Chinese teachers is keeping kids in their program. Every Chinese teacher knows this. As a body of professionals, we often get complacent when we start dealing with our intermediate students. It’s easy to assume that students are going to stay in the program, but that’s not necessarily the case; Intermediate students leave programs all the time. If we are not able to provide experiences of success, proof of improvement, and experiences that are enjoyable and rewarding, then yeah, they’re going to leave. We have to find ways to keep our intermediate and advanced students in the programs and we need to do it by giving them a chance to really practice and learn Chinese.

This underscores how easy it is to overlook this ‘time problem’ of Chinese. If you are a Spanish student and you study really hard, in 2 years you’re going to have the ability to a lot of fun things with your Spanish. However, Chinese is just so much more challenging and if we don’t find ways to make Chinese fun, entertaining, and enjoyable, then many people just stop studying. Even great students stop for all sorts of reasons; perhaps it’s taking too much time, they feel like they’re not making enough progress, or they feel like they’re never going to be able to use their Chinese for something enjoyable.

Superior Results

When I think back to the time before I used graded readers, I was sold on following the Integrated Chinese textbook, mainly because this is the textbook most University programs use. I figured if they were going to study Chinese in college, this would give them a head start and possibly skip forward a couple years in college. I discovered that taking a step away from the textbook, spending more time with extensive reading, and requiring students to do more writing was better preparation for university than any lesson in any book. It provided a more robust experience for the learner in many ways. For example, if you were to give one of my students a grammar test, perhaps they would not necessarily perform as well as some other students who had followed the textbook in a strict sense, however, in terms of their grasp and command of the language, it’s totally different. No amount of review and no number of discussions about the perils of the forgetting curve was as effective in helping students to retain vocabulary or build proficiency in Chinese as extensive reading.

Extensive reading provides the scaffold to help learners through the awkward intermediate stages and gives students the confidence that they can actually use the language, understand the language, and open up the language to their view. Even more, when they actually do encounter Chinese people, they have more things to talk about because they’ve been exposed to the culture through reading.

Ultimately, it is up to us as learners and educators alike to take responsibility for the language learning experience and transform it from obtaining an intermediate knowledge about Chinese into having an intermediate level of ability in Chinese. You can do it!

Due to the interest this article has received, you can find out more about how to do extensive reading through the Extensive Reading Foundations “Guide to Extensive Reading” and the why of extensive reading through this easy-to-digest video “The Inescapable Case for Extensive Reading” .

Strong Majority of Provo District 9th Graders Passed AP Chinese Test

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As students this month are vigorously preparing to pass the AP Chinese test, we thought it would be timely to share some good news from the Provo School District. In the spring of 2018, students in six different Utah high schools were 9th grade Chinese immersion students — the first wave of Mandarin immersion students to take the AP Chinese test.

A total of 44 9th grade students at Timpview High School (Provo School District) took the AP Chinese test in the spring of 2018. The results were excellent — 77% of students passed the AP Test — much higher than the national average. These students at Timpview have been fortunate to have amazing teachers and strongly supportive administrators since Elementary School.

These students have clearly demonstrated that success is possible. This program can work – with dedicated teachers and administrators, a strong majority of Mandarin immersion students can pass the AP test in 9th Grade. Deep thanks to all those involved – from elected officials in the state government of Utah, to state, district, and school administrators, and especially the teachers!

Integrating Chinese Media in Your Home

I was recently thinking about Elizabeth Weise’s book A Parent’s Guide to Mandarin Immersion. (I highly recommend this book by the way and it’s currently a bargain on Kindle at $2.99). One part of the book that has really stuck out to me is an analogy she uses about visiting a home and noticing that there are no books on the shelves. None. In fact, no books in the whole house. Would we be surprised if the child struggled a bit with reading? This scenario in fact describes (for most of us) our homes – in terms of Chinese books and media. So the question is, what will do as parents to provide opportunities for our children to learn Chinese?

The Chinese Breeze book series is a good choice for students (the easiest level can probably be read by 5th graders). The link only goes to four of the books, but there are more in the series. We’ve also written before (here and here) about resources for parents in terms of a variety of shows and activities that kids can participate in.

Recently my family has enjoyed watching the Chinese Drama series “A Love So Beautiful.” It’s a fun, squeaky clean show that follows the story of five high school students in China. English subtitles are available (and for most students will be necessary for full comprehension). But it’s a fun way to practice Chinese listening skills and some cultural insights will come as well. Consider having a Chinese movie night where you watch an episode or two together. Hopefully your children will like it enough to keep going!

Another great series is “Love 020.” This series is a little more intense than “A Love So Beautiful” as it takes place on a college campus and includes scenes that take place in a fantasy world, but it’s still very clean and my kids have loved it so far.

Searching YouTube, Amazon, and other venues will yield further movies and books that could entice your children to spend a little more time immersed in Chinese. We welcome any comments as to specific media you have used to help your children practice their Chinese in the home!

Earning Advanced Language College Credit in High School

In a previous post we outlined what happens to high school students who have successfully completed their grades 1-8 immersion experience. We also have highlighted how this has worked out for those taking Spanish Immersion (which is a couple of years ahead of Chinese Immersion) in its development.

In this post we want to give an update on what is called the “bridge program,” in which students who have passed the AP Language and Culture test with a score of 3 or higher can take college courses in 10-12 grade. “The Bridge Program is a partnership between high schools and all of Utah’s public institutions of higher education. Credit from Bridge Courses will be accepted by all universities towards a minor/ major in the language of study.” Discussion are also underway with Brigham Young University, the largest private institute of higher education in the state to accept these classes as well.

The “Bridge courses” are college level courses, with different courses being offered in 10th, 11th and 12th grades – helping students earn both high school and college credit. These are advanced 3000-level university courses. Typically, five such courses would be required to minor in a foreign language. This means that students can graduate from high school just two classes short of a minor in the foreign language. In some cases universities may offer majors as well or opportunities for students to dive deep into the major along with language (e.g., study abroad experiences or internships in China).

For updated information on which colleges in the state have Chinese majors and minors, please see the FAQ page for the Bridge Program.

Update** The below comes from Jill Landes-Lee Bridge Program, state director:

“If I’d like to offer some additional information on the credits after high school that would lead to a minor or major. In accordance with Senator Stephenson’s SB152, all public institutions in Utah shall accept the Bridge Course credit toward a minor/major pathway. However, each university has slightly unique requirements for a minor/major, so when students arrive on campus it’s predicted that departments will require 2 or 3 additional courses for the minor. We will continue to work with departments across the state to learn about and publish their minor/major pathways over the next few years, preparing for DLI/Bridge students to arrive on our campuses in 2022-23. Exciting times! Please continue to check our website for updates.

Immersion and the Shift to Junior High

Like many parents who enroll their children in an elementary language immersion program, I had (and still have) high hopes that my children will continue the program in junior high. I’m very impressed with the Utah state model, which is designed to have students spend one-half of their days in the target language (grades 1-6) and then take language classes in junior high, with students taking the AP test in 9th grade. The current plan is that in grades 10-12 students will be able to take college classes (perhaps via some type of distance education) and be just a couple of classes short of receiving a minor in the target language. See more details on the Utah model.

Originally Utah planned that junior high students would take two classes in their target language – a language class and history taught in the target language. The plans have morphed somewhat, and their current approach is that in 7th and 8th students will take an honors immersion language course, and, if desired, a repeatable one-semester culture and media course, and then an AP course in 9th grade.

A few months before my oldest daughter was about to enter 7th grade, the Provo school district held a meeting for parents to talk about the transition from 6th to 7th grade. One of the biggest challenges was that typically 7th grade students in the Provo students only get 1.5 electives. So if a student wanted to take Honors Chinese plus one Chinese Culture and Media course, it would eat up all of her electives. Many parents were concerned because they hoped their children could take band/orchestra/choir/dance/art/etc. This was a major issue and the district determined that it would need to take some time to figure out how to resolve it.

In my view, the solution the district came up with was brilliant. They found a way to be flexible and let each student tailor his/her own “best schedule.” There are several classes that traditionally most seventh graders in the Provo School District have taken (e.g., health, PE, art, etc.). The district allowed parents to select which traditionally required classes (if any) that they wanted their students to opt out of, and which electives they wanted their child to take. In our case, my daughter chose to opt out of Art, Health, PE and Utah history. That allowed her to take 1.5 credits of Chinese, plus orchestra, social dance, and creative writing.

Many districts will be shifting into junior high immersion over the next few years. In my opinion it would be advantageous for parents and junior high / district administrators to meet together well before the school year starts and look carefully at the requirements for 7th graders and how to be flexible with students who want to continue their language studies and also take full-year electives, such as choir.

Update, based on Joani’s comment. My understanding (based on discussions with two districts, but I could be wrong) is that because 7th grade does not count towards graduation that districts have flexibility in what they actually require. While parents could have their child enroll in an online health class, or something like that, it is not required for graduation.

How Can I Help My Child Learn Mandarin When I Don’t Speak It?

Often parents worry about how they will be able to help their children learn how to speak Chinese when they themselves don’t speak it. It can feel as daunting as hiking the complete length of the great wall of China!

But don’t worry! You don’t have to speak any Mandarin for your children to succeed. At the same time, you can provide your children with time to practice their Chinese during the school week. Just as skills like reading English and doing math need to be reinforced at home, so do the Chinese skills your child is learning. This does not need to be incredibly time-consuming. Fifteen to thirty minutes of Chinese time each school night can give your child the reinforcement he or she needs. The following are suggestions of how non-Chinese speaking parents can help create this Chinese time for their children.

1. Support your child in doing any Chinese homework they have. For example if s/he has a take home reading book listen to your child read it. If your child has spelling words, have them write the words two or three times each night. If your child doesn’t have homework, ask your teacher for some, or use some of the below resources. 15-30 minutes of Chinese practice at home can definitely help your child learn Chinese.

2. Currently, some schools use a Singapore reading curriculum. You access their website and have your children read you the books they are studying in school. The website can be a little difficult to navigate because it’s in Chinese, but don’t be intimidated – it really isn’t that hard, especially because your child can probably figure it out. If that fails, contact your child’s teacher.

3. Some students use Better Chinese. Your school may provide free or discounted membership; it is typically about $25.00 a year. Having your children read you the online stories can be very helpful for them to reinforce their reading skills.

4. Math flashcards that children can use to remember math vocabulary. (English translation here).

5. Digital flashcards based on the key vocab words are available to help your children reinforce their skills. First grade, second grade, third grade, fourth grade. Notice that there are some games that can be played. Some are harder than others, “Scatter” is one that many children will enjoy.

6. Practice reading with Chinese Immersion teachers from Canada reading Chinese books.

7. Let your children watch Chinese video clips. For example, they can watch Dora the Explorer or  Spongebob Squarepants (note – both of those links are to YouTube-like sites that display ads. Putting the display to full-screen often eliminates the ad. Both of those links are for individual episodes; additional episodes appear underneath). Younger learners might enjoy Sesame Street or Thomas the Train in Chinese. Several other videos, songs, etc. are linked here.

Dora Chinese

8. Connect with other parents of immersion students and work together. Get connected if you aren’t already.

9. Help your children type in Chinese. This YouTube video explains how to make it so that you can type Chinese characters on your computer. Some children will have fun typing letters to each other using characters. For those who like pinyin, this macro can help you quickly transform a word like “wo3” into “wǒ.”

10. If you have a smart device, get some apps for your kids to play with. Speak and Learn Pro (iOS only) works like Rosetta stone, but much cheaper ($9.99). Should be a fun review for most students and a good way to reinforce learning.

The main thing is to keep on trying — a consistent effort to help your child spent 15-30 minutes a day having fun with Chinese at home can pay big dividends.

What tools/ideas have you found to be successful?